These pages provide suggestions and guidelines for researchers who wish to create audio files for analysis with the CLAN editor and other TalkBank programs.

Warning: For detailed phonological work, it is best to use 16-bit WAV format in stereo at either 22,050 or 44,100 KHz. However, for many purposes, recording in compressed formats such as MP3, AAC, or OGG is acceptable, as long as you use the high-quality versions of these formats.

Working with audio involves two basic processes: recording and linkage.

  1. The first step is recording. In the old days, one would record to cassettes or tapes, but now most recording goes directly to digital files. If you would like some suggestions on recording equipment and techniques, you should read this information.
    1. For recording of child subjects, here is an excellent description of a fully implemented set-up from Margaret Fleck and suggestions regarding wireless mikes from Toby Mcrae.
    2. For recording from adult subjects here are suggestions from Michael Chial.
  2. The second step is transcription and linkage. For details on this process, please read the Media Linkage chapter in the CLAN manual.
If you want to extract digitized files from older analog recordings on cassettes or reel-to-reel, we recommend using a professional digitization service. Prices for this service are now very reasonable. Please contact us for recommendations.